posts 1 - 15 of 16
Boston, US
Posts: 288

There is a museum in central Kyiv called the Holodomor Museum. As I’m writing this, I hope it’s still there.

It documents one of the most horrific events in history: the deliberate starvation—via famine--of the people of Ukraine. Who were the perpetrators? The Stalinist regime that controlled the then Soviet Union.

What I’d like you to do is to take a look at as many of these sources as you are able on the Holodomor:

And then, using the readings and what you know, let’s post on this:

  • What does the Holdomor show us about the relationship between Russia (the former Soviet Union) and Ukraine?
  • What do these events reveal about using food and deprivation as weapons to destroy a population?
  • How do you think these events factor into the legacy of the Russian role in Ukraine today, 90 years after the fact?
  • And what are you left wondering about with respect to Russia and Ukraine in 2022 and beyond?
Boston, Massachusetts, US
Posts: 18
  1. The Holodomor shows us that the relationship between Russia and Ukraine is extremely strained and they have a very complex and intertwined history. It also shows us how Russia seemingly has no remorse for the Holodomor as they are taking action against Ukraine once again.
  2. These events reveal that artillery and ammunition aren’t the only weapons that can be used to kill people. The events reveal to us that warfare can be extremely complex as there are many, many different weapons at one’s disposal that some might not think of right away as a weapon. These events also show us just how truly devastating using food and deprivation can be to a population and this can influence future actions taken during similar conflicts. It goes to show you how truly cruel people can be to one another.
  3. I think that these events definitely influence the way Ukrainians look at and feel about Russia. Ukraine has recognized Holodomor as genocide since 2006, meaning that since at least 2006, the entire country has mourned together what happened less than 100 years ago. I think that the way Ukraine looks at Russia is definitely influencing how they are responding and how they are feeling about Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. I believe that in the last 90 years since Holodomor, Ukraine and Russia have had some tensions that only rose when Russia illegitimately absorbed Crimea, but with Russia’s full-on invasion of Ukraine itself, any sort of good relationship the two nations would have possibly had is now down the drain.
  4. The only question I’m left with is why now? What about now seemed like the right time to Putin and Russia and what does Ukraine hold that they truly want?
Boston, Massachusetts , US
Posts: 24
  • They had a toxic relationship. Russia during the Holodomor tricked Ukrainians by forcing them to give up their livelihoods of farming and stole their resources, starving Ukrainians. Most of Russia’s hurtful policies were targeting Ukrainians in Ukraine and Kuban which show that Russia felt like Ukrainians were worthless. Ukraine has very fertile soil which makes it all the more attractive. Russia wanted to enslave Ukraine to be part of a big Soviet mission and Stalin was power hungry.
  • It’s a very effective way where people aren’t directly killing people through war, but also asserting dominance and superiority which made Ukraine feel powerless. It makes the whole population vulnerable and Russia didn’t suffer any losses whereas war with guns would be seen as much worse. Restricting someone from survival resources causes a slow painful death and really wipes out Ukraine in terms of lives and hope and identity. It’s showing them that they don’t even deserve to live and taking away everything they’ve worked for. Parents couldn’t feed their children which created widespread panic and caused PTSD and traumatized people for life. Dead bodies would just be lying on the street as seen in photographs from the museum which is terrifying to not know whether you’re next or a friend.
  • Ukraine hasn’t forgotten this genocide since there’s a museum, a national day, and in 2006 declared Holodomor a genocide. They are weary of Russia’s power to abuse them and this is like history repeating itself. Today, Russia doesn’t acknowledge that Holodomor is a genocide but calls it a tragedy to all of the Soviet Union which is unbelievable and shows that they teach history their own way by covering up what they’ve done to other people. I think Russia will do what they want when they want to no matter who they’ll affect or how they’re seen, even though reputation is a big deal.
  • I wonder who supports Russia, I know China hasn’t commented on the Ukraine attack, and how they possibly could. Have Russian leaders always been dictatorial and lack humanity? What will happen to the citizens that are getting roped into the war? What will the outcome be and will people be okay? What will Putin do? What does Russia really want?

Boston, Massachusetts, US
Posts: 26
  • Holodomor shows us that Russia and Ukraine have a long existing conflict. Russia is not afraid to subjugate and attack Russia for their own purposes. Stalin with his collectivization plan forced Ukrainians to give up their resources and futures. Russia uses the border to trap/threaten Ukraine during the Holodomor and the lead up to the attacks on Ukraine just a few days ago.
  • These events show how important it is to have a stable food source within countries. This also shows how easy it is to destroy a population just by stripping them of their food source. Food is essential to survival, so if one is cut off from access to food their likelihood of surviving decreases. Compared to using weapons one side is not being affected or having people die
  • The Ukrainians fear Russia's power down the line because of Holodomor. Stalin tried to cover up the facts of the Holodomor to misinform the world. Putin does the same thing by claiming that Russia was not going to invade. Russia does not even recognized what Stalin did was genocide so they really don't see an issue with what has been done. Relating this back to today Putin does not see what he is doing is wrong and most likely will do anything to prevent anyone from getting in his way.
  • I wonder what will happen between the relationship between the two countries? How will this war affect families in the long term? Is there even a real reason as to why Russia continually mistreats the people of Ukraine
Boston, MA, US
Posts: 23

What was the Holodomor and what does it have to do with the Ukraine in 2022?

The Holodomor shows us that Russia has always had the upper hand against Ukraine and have long been a victim of their greed and power. The Holodomor also shows how toxic the relationship between Russia and Ukraine is. Before the Holodomor, the Russian government started their collectivization policies which required farmers to transfer their private land to the state. They then collected grain from them to the point where it was impossible. The Holodomor shows how Russia was once viewed Ukraine as a tool for its own benefit and it’s intentions of stripping them of independence beyond repair.

The Holodomor shows how using food and deprivation as weapons to destroy a population is actually very sneaky of them. Using bombs and weaponry like what we are used to when we think of how one country can destroy a population is more easily noticed than starving a population. In the BBC article it states, “Kremlin officials insist that, while the Holodomor was a tragedy, it was not intentional, and other regions in the Soviet Union suffered at that time.” Since starvation could be a natural event, the Russians can easily hide their true intentions and just label it as a “tragedy”. Moreover, it also makes it hard for reporters to accurately portray what is happening to the rest of the world. In the Atlantic article, Duranty's story of “Russians Hungry But not Starving” outshone Jones’s story on what is happening in Ukraine. This was because they, “give “famine” the polite name of “food shortage” and “starving to death” is softened down to read as “widespread mortality from diseases due to malnutrition” from Jones’s reporting.

I think the Holodomor, with 15 countries recognizing the events as a genocide, is going to get people to be more wary on the current war between Ukraine and Russia. With pictures from the events and public exhibition and sharing of what happened from places like the Holodomor museum, the general public will be more careful and active in what’s happening right now. For example, citizens of Russia, knowing about the Holodomor might be more unaccepting of their government’s actions today.

When will all this conflict between Ukraine and Russia stop? Is there any way where we can peacefully stop this? And if Russia takes Ukraine, will they continue to seize land beyond?

boston, Ma, US
Posts: 25

What was the holodomor and what does it have to do with Ukraine in 2022?

The Holdomor proves that Russia and Ukraine have never had a good relationship. We see that Russia has always taken advantage of Ukraine especially in week times but most importantly in times where Ukraine was thriving. When Ukrainewas doing well Russia took that away from them for example they stole all their resources. Another toxic thing that Russia did to Ukraine was benefiting from the fact that they are bordering states, by threatening them and in a sense in closing them knowing that they were the the crater power.

These events revealed that sometimes the greatest and most detrimental wars are ones that don’t include artillery. Because from the outside it’s not seen as a war but depriving people of food leads to hunger and hunger leads to sarvation. So whether someone is dying by starving or by being shot by a gun the end result is the same. So this war that Russia was fighting against Ukraine which didn’t include military power might’ve not seemed as bad and made Russia look bad but it had the same impact if they had invaded militarily. It also shows how important and powerful Russia was at taking resources away from Ukraine and leaving them with nothing.

Ukraine has not and will never forgive Russia for the genocide they had committed on their people. If they had had good relationships in the past through Russia’s hate towards Ukraine all of those good ties have been burned. We see even today how the relationship between the two countries is not good at all but unfortunately it seems like Russia always has an always will have more power than Ukraine because of the money and resources they have stolen and created. These factors have left the people of Ukraine with much hate towards Russians rightfully because of all the awful things russia has done to them. The tension is grater now than ever as the war to seize Ukraine has begun.

I am left to wonder if Ukraine has a chance at defending themselves and restoring the old and prosperous life that the country can give to their citizens? How will Ukraine financially recover from the damage Russia has been leaving on it?

Boston, MA, US
Posts: 25

The Holodomor shows us that Ukraine and Russia have a long cultural and political history that the news currently isn’t reporting on. They only care about the flashy headlines that will get them the most views and profits. Thus, there is a lot more to this situation than all of us probably know. However, the Holodomor also shows that Russia is willing to kill as many innocent civilians as possible and in a very cruel manner. It is rather torturous to slowly die of starvation and it affected everyone without discretion.

Corpses of people of all ages and genders were left on the streets because the amount of people of dying was so high that it was normal. One of the most famous pictures by Alexander Wienerberger was of a man on the streets as people walked by. Similarly, there is a picture of a young girl who was had died of starvation on a bridge as two men passed her. Moreover, it is a form of slow violence where the international community pays less attention and are less willing to intervene. Unlike bombings and direct executions, famines are more discreet and cost effective. The Bolsheviks didn’t have to pay troops or buy weaponry to effectively cause mass death.

The Holodomor is crucial to know about in light of the recent invasion into Ukraine. Not only was the cruelty of the genocide indicative of what might happen if Russia is successful, it has two other implications. The Russian government is able to control media domestically and internationally and dictate what the rest of the world knows. They hid all the media by banning any mentions of the famine and only allowed approved journalists into Ukraine. Their power never ended if you consider how we refer to Ukraine as “the Ukraine” and Kyiv as “Kiev.” If you look into Russian media today, they proclaim a Russian success and their motivations as NATO’s expansion that they had promised to avoid back in the 90s.

Ultimately, the Holodomor shows us that the situation is much more complex than we think. There is also the whole issue with NATO’s 2008 memorandum where they promised Ukraine and Georgia membership but never provided any followup steps. Other factors could include the fertile land Ms. Freeman mentioned, radioactive material at Chernobyl, a diversion from domestic issues and so many more.

The biggest questions I have is how do you respond to this? One of the articles explained how the public failed to respond to the Holodomor and sent zero aid because there was so much geopolitical tension that they didn’t want any escalation. Troops and weaponry have empirically led to escalation, sanctions disproportionately hurt innocent civilians while allowing the government to scapegoat the US and diplomacy has failed thus far. The Holodomor shows that not intervening enables Russia to do whatever they want, so is there anything you can do without making it worse?

Boston, MA, US
Posts: 26

The Holdomor Genocide shows us the years of subjugation Russia has already had over the Ukrainian people, an age old conflict that allows us to understand today’s events far more clearly. It is clear that Russia has an expansionist view, and it treats Ukraine as a lesser state that it can extract resources from and leave nothing in return. In Putin’s return to many of the soviet ways, he is attempting to recapture this land and re-subjugate its people.

These events reveal just how powerful of an impact food can have on the fate of people across the globe, and unfortunately how it can be used as a tool for mass destruction. As the Atlantic article details, some 4 million Ukrainians “died not because of neglect or crop failure, but because they had been deliberately deprived of food.” This is horrific, and tragic, and it reveals the twisted ideology Russia had about its satellite countries. As the 12 minute video described, the Ukrainians were targeted specifically for their nationality, but also for their resistance against the totalitarian Soviet regime, showing the vicious response Russia had to this defiance. Humans rely on food, and restricting their access to it all together is one of the most brutal, yet “effective” tactics to impose one’s will on a population, or wipe out a group all together.

The events of the Holdomor definitely factor into current Russia/Ukraine relations. There is evidently history of this conflict embedded in both societies. On one hand, Russia still clearly sees Ukraine as a country and a people that it can brutally subjugate and rule, and as a group that is “lesser than.” On the other hand, Ukrainians remember this atrocity, and are likely staunch in their opposition to a Russian takeover, and willing to defend their country to the bitter end due to this violent history.

I am left to wonder whether similar events will transpire if Russia is to take over Ukraine again. Will Putin force the Ukrainian people into brutal submission, will he jail and kill every soldier and leader in the conflict? I hope it doesn’t come to this, but it is clear Russia is not backing down anytime soon. I also wonder whether Russia will ever cease to see Ukraine as a satellite of itself, and instead as a separate, independent nation.

Boston, MA, US
Posts: 17

What was the Holodomor and what does it have to do with Ukraine in 2022?

  1. The Holodomor demonstrates Russia’s crave for power and resources, and it also shows the world it’s brutality towards its own people. In the Free Radio Europe video it mentions how Ukraine is Russia’s breadbasket, or a main source of agriculture and resources, this also connects with Russia’s drive to claim Ukraine now. Today Ukraine is still rich with resources, but now more valuable ones like oil, and because our world relies on oil and fossil fuels Russia is even more determined to gain more of these resources, which inevitably leads to more wealth for the country. The relationship between Ukraine and Russia has always been about “how could Russia benefit from Ukraine?” And in the process of trying to answer that question it has led to man-made famines, and now, in 2022, war.
  2. In 1932, when Russia used food deprivation as a weapon, it became very clear to the world that generic artillery like machine guns, toxic gasses, and bombs weren’t the only way you could wipe out an entire population. Starvation is not a quick way to die, it happens over a period of days, and if pain is being inflicted on a person over a period of time it is classified as torchure. When Russia committed this genocide the world saw how corrupt and absurd the Soviot Union was, and to kill off your own people because they wanted freedom and a life for themselves is chilling. The events that happened in Ukraine revealed the damages and power that Russia has, and today we see that Putin is still going against the world and his own people to try and regain control over Ukraine.
  3. I think that Ukraine knowing about the Holodomor genocide is a large part of why Ukrainian soldiers and people are fighting so hard on the land, ocean, and skies of their country because of the unpredictability Russia represents. Ukraine became independent for a reason, and a good one at that, and I believe that there won’t be a time when they reconcile with Russia over the events that happened in the 1930s. Ukraine has always seen Russia as the bad guys, just like the world is seeing now, and I would hope that if more people knew about the genocide we would do more to prevent Russia from gaining back power in the Ukraine.
  4. I’m wondering that if Russia overtakes Ukraine, would Putin stop there, or would he try to take over the rest of the countries who gained independence from Russia? Also if Russia takes over Ukraine, will the people of Ukraine be punished for not allowing Russia to have an easy take over? Will another genocide occur?
no name
Boston, Massachusetts, US
Posts: 18
  • That this conflict wasn't a sudden or recent issue between the two countries rather that both have much longer dynamics that seems to be overlooked. Prolonged conflicts are not favorable to the media as they aren't profitable: we see it with the Israeli apatheid occupation coverage last year. That is why everyone thinks the annexation of Crimea is the only conflict and only resparked this year. The idea of Ukrainian independence has been around for more than a century as well as the willingness of the Russian to crush this.
  • The Holodomor was a planned out siege to defeat Stalin's opposition. The people no matter what suffer the most from these sieges as we see inside Russia right now while Putin likely will still live in luxury. It is quite similar to how sanctions work, they are used to both crush resistance. Creating a dependency on a nation makes it even more difficult for them. Winston Churchill around the same time forcibly starved the Bengal people during WW2 in favor of feeding European countries, then blaming it on them "breeding like pests".
  • Since the Holodomor crushed any resistance to Russian rule, they used the chance to present a revisionary history the idea that Ukrainians don't want to be independent, but have always recently belonged to Russia. It is an imperialist justification that the Ukrainian people cannot rule themselves correctly and need Russian to do so. If this is taught universally the public opinion about Russia in general will change especially since they were so unjust. It is like the awareness that the Armenian genocide is finally getting, putting pressure on Turkey to take accountability that is slowly growing.
  • What will Putin do if he does end up winning, is it even worth it? How will Russia hold Ukraine without doing similar things to crush resistance? Because it is clear Ukraine won't go down without a fight as well as how much pressure will it take for them to crack. WIll China jump the boat? The "peace talk" that are happening right now are useless because behind it are Russia's threat of nukes, it is yet again exploitation by them to get what they want from Ukrainian people

boston , Massachusetts, US
Posts: 19

What was the Holodomor and what does it have to do with the Ukraine in 2022?

I do not think I have ever learned about this in any of my history classes ever, which is very shocking to me as it seems to be a very big time to remember in history especially in regards to and for Ukraine. The Holodomor left millions of people dead due to starvation, it is a genocide. This really emphasizes how deep the conflict between Russia and Ukraine is, and I never really understood that until now. This shows us that using food and deprivation can go a very long way, and it is also a form of genocide even though you aren’t using weapons. If anything I think it is worse than just shooting someone. Furthermore, both are bad but with starvation and deprivation you get the part of suffering and go through a painful death, rather than just being shot and not really feeling anything because you don't get to process the pain before you're already dead. These events factor into the fact that Ukraine has been robbed from power and it can happen again…. It is happening again which is the sad part. Putin is absolutely reckless and that is just a whole different conversation, but it is scary to see it happening again in the current day. Both of these scenarios are similar in the sense that they both revolve around power and fear. I’m just curious and scared to see what will happen next, especially because NATO can and might be involved/is close to being involved, because once that happens I am scared all h*ll will break loose.
Boston, MA, US
Posts: 21

What was the Holodomor and what does it have to do with Ukraine in 2022?

The Holodomor demonstrates the history of Russia and Ukraine’s relationship. In the video from the Holodomor memorial museum it was continuously described as genocide. The two countries have always had certain views of each other, and there have been many conflicts. As famine spread across the Soviet Union, Ukrainians were deprived of food and were not allowed to escape. This highlights the long term conflicts that have had in history and this is a long term issue. Today’s conflict is a long term issue that has been going on for generations and just seemingly came to the surface. Food deprivation used as weaponry is an extreme yet effective way to manipulate and destroy a population. In a BBC News article, the part that said when school resumed in the fall, two thirds of the seats were empty. This is an extremely disturbing way to show how effective the weaponizing of food, is impactful. This devastation killed millions to the point where is was near impossible for generations afterwards to restabilize. Typically, when we hear the word “genocide” we think mass weaponry and physical harm in order to wipe out a population as a whole. However this puts into perspective the demonizing way in which food was not seen as a necessity, and was taken away to wipe out these people. This was a mass genocide and it needs to be recognized as such. This is not a new conflict. This has been an ongoing tension between the two countries. Russia gained power through this destruction.The event of Holodomor was devastating through decades to come, and destabilized Ukraine far more than Russia. This was a power tool. Ukraine had to struggle with being dominated by Russia while also recovering from the devastating loss. Russia did very little to help out afterwards and denied this true history. Using food deprivation is and easier “fix” than trying to hide mass killings with weaponry. Today, I am left wondering how all this could just be swept under the rug as well as how we can prevent things like this happening again.

South Boston, MA, US
Posts: 17

What was the Holodomor and what does it have to do with the Ukraine in 2022

It shows that their relationship was never a peaceful one, and for a long time it wasn't recognized that the famine even happened. The former Soviet Nation starved the Ukrainian people in the 1930s (that is within living memory), so the relationship between Russia and the Ukraine isn't good to begin with.

By taking away people's food, that makes it so they suffer beyond belief. The Russians took away one of the most fundamental things you need to live. The human body wants to stay alive (naturally we have evolved so that we will live), the human body can survive from 8 to 21 days with no food, however by the end you are barely living. Here right before R5 some teachers can barely get a class's attention because we've gone a few hours without food (this is not a comparison at all just trying to show how miserable it becomes when the human body doesn't get food). Dying because of starvation is one of the worst ways to suffer, because the human body slowly starts shutting down, and while starving with no food and their bodies were shutting down the Ukrainians were still forced to work and give up what little food they could manage to grow with the dying environment as well. Using food as a weapon is beyond cruel because it makes sure that people will suffer a slow painful death while their body wants to keep living but the person is giving up.

This would obviously make the Russian and Ukraine relationship unstable, especially since Russia didn't acknowledge the famine and suffering they caused the Ukrainian people, therefore the governments aren't going to cooperate. 90 years may seem like a long time but it really isn't, some people live longer than 90 year, so to say 90 years after the fact as though that's a lot of time it's not a long time at all. In the U.S. the Civil war ended a little over 150 years ago and we still see the effects of racism, Jim Crow law etc within the U.S, the Irish potato famine happened 170 years ago and some parts of Ireland are still affected by it. So it would be foolish to say 90 years after an event the Ukrainians wouldn't be affected by the famine.

How can this be resolved, is it possible? Is there a scenario where this can end peacefully?

Boston, Massachussetts, US
Posts: 27

The Holodomor shows us that Russia and Ukraine clearly have a toxic and strained relationship. It was striking to learn that the Holodomor was described as a geneocide, emphasized in the Holodomor memorial museum video. Genocide is when a group of people from a certian nation or ethnicity are deliberately targeted and killed with an aim of being destroyed. Russia, however, claimed they have the right to invade Ukraine because it’s “rightfully” a part of Russia. I think they claim this because they are intimidated by Ukraine’s relatively new independence. This was an interesting contradiction to me because why would you want to invade a country because of it’s differences but you already “own” it as a part of your country? It seems as if Russia is trying to prove their power to the rest of the world.

Using food and deprivation as weapons to destroy an entire population is one of the most slowly harmful yet sadly successful tactics. Food is a necessity to survival, hence why people can die from being deprived of it. This can lead to years of struggle while the population aims to correct the lowered levels of people and food. It takes a long time to collect the new food.

These events of the Holodomor created a tense relationship between the two countries that continued to this day in age. It has played into what Russia is doing to Ukraine right now. Russians have a violent feeling towards Ukrainian people now. Russia refuses to see Holodomor as a geneocide. All I wonder is what will really be the result of all this. I honestly do not understand how Putin has the power to continue reckless attacks on Ukraine with the whole world against him. How does a person gain that much power? How is this seriously possible?

Boston, Massachusetts, US
Posts: 14


  1. What does the Holodomor show us about the relationship between Russia (the former Soviet Union) and Ukraine?

The starvation of millions of Ukrainians at the hands of Russia in 1932, known as the Holodomor, reveals that Russia considered Ukraine a threat and chose a path of genocide to wield their control. According to the film created by the Holodomor Museum, Ukraine was considered a prosperous state of the USSR based on their fertile lands. As a way to control the economy and spread their communism ideology, Russia took the land away from the Ukrainians and set up collective farms. Ukrainian farmers protested and Russia responded by establishing unrealistic production quotas on farmers – The Law of Five Years of Grain – and ultimately starved the Ukrainians. Essentially, Russia felt threatened by private farmers who they believed would prevent totalitarian authority.

  1. What do these events reveal about using food and deprivation as weapons to destroy a population?

Russia starved the Ukrainians to exert their total control over the Ukraine. Starved, the Ukrainian could not fight back to regain control of their farms and were at the mercy of Russia and their communist control. Russia used starvation as a means to achieve economic control of grain production and political control since many Ukrainians fled, and Russia could exert political control. Starvation was also a means to destroy the will of the Ukrainian people. As indicated on one of the films, Russia attempted to “reject the humanity” of the Ukrainian people by withholding the necessity of food.

  1. How do you think these events factor into the legacy of the Russian role in Ukraine today, 90 years after the fact?

The events of 90 years ago still have an impact on the relationship between Russia and Ukraine today because it reflects the power struggle that continues to exist. In addition, to being rich in mineral resources, Ukraine is the second largest country in Europe after Russia. This poses a threat to Russia, which remains one of the last standing communist countries in Eastern Europe. As a free market and democratic country, politically the Ukraine represents the opposite of a state-run totalitarian government like Russia. In an effort to ensure that Ukraine remains neutral and does not align with the European Union or NATO, Russia has once again asserted its military power by invading Ukraine and attempting to weaken and ultimately destroy its infrastructure and culture.

  1. And what are you left wondering about with respect to Russia and Ukraine in 2022 and beyond?

In 2022, it appears that history may be repeating itself. Under the leadership of Putin, Russian troops have destroyed much of the infrastructure of the Ukraine. This includes using landmines to damage soil and crops. Russia has also taken control of Ukraine’s ports which is where needed supplies are provided. Putin, like Stalin before him, is trying to weaponize mass hunger. Russian troops have also destroyed many of Ukraine’s cultural institutions as a way to destroy Ukraine’s cultural heritage. This is not unlike the genocide of 1932, which seeks for the “annihilation of people for who they are.”

Luckily, the atrocities in the Ukraine are published minute-by-minute for the world to see. This has prompted the world to respond with humanitarian assistance. People see the images of destroyed buildings, dying people, and massive emigration. The global community cannot silence journalists and photographers like Gareth Johnson, Alexander Weinerberger, James Abbe, Whiting Williams, and Mykola Boku were silenced. In addition, the rules established by the Geneva Convention may allow Putin to be tried for war crimes.

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