posts 1 - 15 of 26
freemanjud
Boston, US
Posts: 250

Readings: Read at least 3 of these 6 (your choice as to which ones you read, though you are certainly welcome to read all)

(I have linked PDFs of these articles in Google classroom for those who hit the paywall from the Boston Globe or The Atlantic ☹ )


Meghan E. Irons, Shelley Murphy, and Jenna Russell, “History Rolled in on a Yellow School Bus,” Boston Globe, September 6, 2014.

https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2014/09/06/boston-busing-crisis-years-later/DS35nsuqp0yh8f1q9aRQUL/story.html OR https://drive.google.com/file/d/1syyYP4YyodGsXHcgE7C9dJtZOvED8J6d/view?usp=sharing


Farah Stockman, “Did Busing Slow the City’s Desegregation?” Boston Globe, August 9, 2015.

https://www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/2015/08/08/did-busing-slow-boston-desegregation/5HXQbNFyuvD0SV4UdhNgAL/story.html OR https://drive.google.com/file/d/1SJY3mT2HLkjZ3T5qk2UJZgpu32CNd_zP/view?usp=sharing


Farah Stockman, “How a Standoff Over Schools Changed the Country,” Boston Globe, December 20, 2015.

https://www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/editorials/2015/12/20/how-standoff-over-schools-changed-country/oP7xEwikHvdAgjtc0lfNdN/story.html OR https://drive.google.com/file/d/13Oaq9udIFlOFVDTqRTfc6-Y4FXFD3p8b/view?usp=sharing


Michael Patrick MacDonald, “Whitey Bulger, Boston Busing, and Southie’s Lost Generation,” Boston Globe, September 2, 2014.

http://www.michaelpatrickmacdonald.com/articles-backend/2016/9/2/whitey-bulger-boston-busing-and-southies-lost-generation


“Echoes of Boston’s Busing Crisis,” WGBH, Fall 2014. Students (now adults) reading the essays they wrote while 6th graders in 1974 at the Holmes Elementary School in Dorchester. [NOTE: Currently you cannot listen to the folks read their essays but if you click on the thumbnail image of each essay, you will be able to see the typescript of each short essay] http://projects.wgbhnews.org/busing-letters/


Matthew Delmont, “The Lasting Legacy of the Boston Busing Crisis,” The Atlantic, March 29, 2016.

https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/03/the-boston-busing-crisis-was-never-intended-to-work/474264/ OR https://drive.google.com/file/d/16pVJxSS1bWTJUTcZq76eEZT7GyTrCraD/view?usp=sharing


To understand the effect of the desegregation ruling of 1974 and its effect on the Boston public schools beginning in school year 1974-1975, you have to understand the state of schools in the city prior to 1974 AND to understand the demographic tidal wave that resulted as well.


In 1972, when the Morgan v. Hennigan case, charging that the School Committee had discriminated against their children, was filed in US District Court by black parents, there were 96,000 students in the Boston Public Schools. Approximately 60% of them were white. By 1988, the number of students in the BPS dropped to 57,000. At that time 24% of the students were white, 48% were black, 19% were Hispanic, and 8% were Asian. As of 2018, there are 56,000 students in 125 schools: 14% are white, 34% are black, 42% are Hispanic, 9% are Asian with 1% identifying as other/multiracial.


So to say that there has been a seismic shift in the population of the BPS would be an understatement at best.


In class (on Wednesday), we are looking at the very important segment from Eyes on the Prize (from the “Keys to the Kingdom” episode) on Boston busing [for anyone who was absent, here’s a link to an online version of the film via Kanopy, which you can access using your Boston Public Library account; you want to watch from 0:36 to 29:48]. You will also be looking at several additional short clips on this topic in class on Thursday.


Using these readings as well as the film(s) we looked at in class, weigh in on the following questions (and respond to what at least one previous student in the thread had to say):


  • Did the ends (desegregating the Boston public schools) justify the means (busing)?
  • Was desegregation a worthy goal or not?
  • Did change need to happen in the Boston Public Schools or were there other solutions to the remedy prescribed by Judge W. Arthur Garrity?
  • Can you imagine going to school in the environment of 1974-1975? What would have been tolerable? What would have been intolerable?
  • What do you see as the most visible effects today of the desegregation era of 1974-1975?
9oclock
Boston, MA, US
Posts: 13

I think that the critical issue to be resolved was the poor quality of education in schools in predominantly non-white neighborhoods, rather than the segregation itself. Therefore, one could argue that busing did not address the quality of education in both the Southie school and the Roxbury school. But as we know, "seperate but equal" does not work, can not work when the controllers of the United States hold antiblack sentiments and are not being substantially pressured against said crude sentiments. Jim Crow's "Seperate but Equal" proves this. The racial integration of students is a powerful step in dismantling the racial prejudism in our society, it is neccasary. Individual racial prejudism is due to misconcpetions and presumptions, and it is lessened when individuals are personally intimately exposed to individuals from the misconcieved group. But the integration could have been inplaced with more care. For example, there could have been programs intertwined in the education of the schools that promotes a positive interracial community. To be annoyingly technical, if I had gone to highschool during the busing in boston, it would not be intolerable because it would be the "normal". The most visible of the Boston Bussing today can be seen from the stats Ms.Freeman has shared with us, the current level of diversity in Boston Public Schools today.

YellowPencil
Boston, MA, US
Posts: 10

Boston, race, redlining, and desegregation: What do we make of its legacy?

I believe the ends justified the means. Although at the surface level, the goal of busing was to lessen the gap between the quality of education for Blacks and whites, busing also played a role in the general desegregation of Boston. Desegregation in schools is a very worthy goal because it targets the desegregation issue from its roots. Schools can change segregation by targeting the next generation of Bostonians.


The Atlantic article, "The Lasting Legacy of the Busing Crisis", emphasizes that the distinction between de facto segregation and de jure segregation is a false one. In the North, innocent de facto segregation was emphasized over intentional practices like redlining and public housing segregation. Desegregating with busing was necessary because it was a forcing mechanism for Boston to start change. Although in some ways busing wasn't successful in desegregating Boston, the intention was in the right direction.


I think change needed to happen in the BPS, but it could have been done better. The article “Whitey Bulger, Boston Busing, and Southie’s Lost Generation” showed the negative effects of busing. Many students dropped out of school and became victims of drug overdoses and gun violence or joined the wrong crowd. But it may be an inevitable bump to the overall greater change that is needed in Boston.


In WGBH’s “Echoes of Boston’s Busing Crisis,” one student essay stood out to me. In a student essay written by Mark Jaworski, a bused Boston sixth-grader, he wrote “I don't want to go to the Holmes school again because I don't really like it at all. I don't like it because it looks cruddy and I think that the Latin School has a better inside than the Holmes.” He also wrote “Horace was my first friend until I started talking to another boy named Alfred. Surprisingly enough, both of them were blacks.”


This stood out to me because it showed that Mark didn’t like Horace not because of the Black students, whom he befriended, but because of the lesser condition of the interior of the school to Boston Latin. It made me feel hopeful. It showed that busing allowed white students to get to know and also befriend black students.


I couldn’t imagine going to school in the environment of 1974-1975. The atmosphere towards school diversification now is vastly different back then(at least regarding what we hear verbally and see physically in the streets). The film we watched in class on Thursday was eye-opening. I never knew that desegregation of education with busing had so much violence with it.


The most visible effect today of the desegregation era of 1974-1975 is the diversity of race we have in our city.

YellowPencil
Boston, MA, US
Posts: 10

Originally posted by 9oclock on October 22, 2021 11:19

I think that the critical issue to be resolved was the poor quality of education in schools in predominantly non-white neighborhoods, rather than the segregation itself. Therefore, one could argue that busing did not address the quality of education in both the Southie school and the Roxbury school. But as we know, "seperate but equal" does not work, can not work when the controllers of the United States hold antiblack sentiments and are not being substantially pressured against said crude sentiments. Jim Crow's "Seperate but Equal" proves this. The racial integration of students is a powerful step in dismantling the racial prejudism in our society, it is neccasary. Individual racial prejudism is due to misconcpetions and presumptions, and it is lessened when individuals are personally intimately exposed to individuals from the misconcieved group. But the integration could have been inplaced with more care. For example, there could have been programs intertwined in the education of the schools that promotes a positive interracial community. To be annoyingly technical, if I had gone to highschool during the busing in boston, it would not be intolerable because it would be the "normal". The most visible of the Boston Bussing today can be seen from the stats Ms.Freeman has shared with us, the current level of diversity in Boston Public Schools today.

I would have to agree with you on your point that going to school during busing wouldn't be intolerable. The normal today is very different to the normal back then. For example, like in class, we discussed that using derogatory language wouldn't have been as big of a stigma in the past to now. As society changes, our tolerance also changes.

saucymango
Boston, MA, US
Posts: 13

First and foremost, the ends cannot justify the means if the ends did not come out in a positive way. Children of all different races, but most significantly Black children, were harassed and traumatized by White crowds. In the WGBH article, a young seventh grader talked about how despite enjoying the new school, she was still terrified of her prospects and dangers that could come upon her at any moment. Children across the city knew of the fights and hate crimes being committed. Furthermore, the ends also included increased backlash and consequently white flight. This new hatred and avoidance of the issue by leaving only served to continue/exacerbate racism in Boston.

Ultimately, this is because while desegregation is the end result that we should fight for in Boston, it cannot miraculously happen under one, and needless to say one of the first, policy that we pass. Forcibly busing students across Boston may have “desegregated schools,” but desegregation was desired due to the unequal access to resources and opportunities. Without addressing the root causes of the many different forms of inequity in Boston, the goal of desegregation is worthy but difficult to achieve.

Thus, in addition to Judge Garrity’s plan that was created by a white man with the help of White governments and committees, it needed the opinions and voices of Black residents because fundamentally, the city needed to change its mindset and resource distribution. Black parents were smart in touring the schools in other cities to understand what their children were being denied. Similarly, white parents should have been shown around schools in Black neighborhoods to witness the inequity firsthand.

On the other hand, the city simply needed to not encourage the hatred in white parents. The police and other institutions would go to violent protests and do very little or even force organizations that were helping Black folks to leave (Boston Globe article by Stockman). Second, the city should’ve attempted to distribute resources more evenly. I think that deep down, the white parents also did not want to send their children to other schools because they knew that they were resource-poor and associated the kids with the lack of resources. Instead of looking down at them, the city needed to take initiative to help them improve.

Personally, I cannot imagine the terror and turmoil that these young kids had to go through. In the video of Cynthia Yee, she explains how Asian kids were similarly bused to Charlestown for school. I would be able to tolerate going to school everyday as I had experienced going to an over 90% white school, but I would feel alienated and uncomfortable. Moreover, if there was potential harm to my life, I may stay home due to fear.

It’s saddening to see the impacts of the busing policy still exist today. Others have the perception that Boston is incredibly diverse, however, it is also incredibly segregated. Due to backlash from the policy, families both voluntarily and were forcibly displaced from their neighborhoods. They ended up in other communities with similar racial makeups, leading to the highly racially segregated communities we see today. This is true on the community level, but also among friends at school. Students tend to gravitate towards other students of the same race for various reasons. No matter what the reason is, it is something that is clear to most BLS students.

no name
Boston, Massachusetts, US
Posts: 7

Boston, race, redlining, and desegregation: What do we make of its legacy?

I do believe the ends justify the means and was a worthy goal because education is a keystone of development and the future Like the women said in the documentary, it wasn't going to happen overnight. Negotiating between the two parties in the beginning of the 20th century when it came to racial equality resulted in the "separate but equal" concept. Education is such an important aspect of life that if we segregate that we do for the rest of our life. The conflict in 1974 was just tension that we saw building that exploding into the open, it was inevitably going to occur when however was the question. Garrity needed to hear the voices of the people getting affected by this, they were just stirring the pot for their own political gain not caring who is affected. I don't think any minority would be able to tolerate because they were not tolerated in Southie , they began forming "predatory identity", which is when they feel "their survival" is in danger because of "us". Whitey Bulgur's article fits perfectly into this concept when they felt they were getting "replaced". I still see forms of these reactionary education movements that are again just watered down racism like the whole panic of Critical Race Theory.

saucymango
Boston, MA, US
Posts: 13

Originally posted by no name on October 24, 2021 10:55

I do believe the ends justify the means and was a worthy goal because education is a keystone of development and the future Like the women said in the documentary, it wasn't going to happen overnight. Negotiating between the two parties in the beginning of the 20th century when it came to racial equality resulted in the "separate but equal" concept. Education is such an important aspect of life that if we segregate that we do for the rest of our life. The conflict in 1974 was just tension that we saw building that exploding into the open, it was inevitably going to occur when however was the question. Garrity needed to hear the voices of the people getting affected by this, they were just stirring the pot for their own political gain not caring who is affected. I don't think any minority would be able to tolerate because they were not tolerated in Southie , they began forming "predatory identity", which is when they feel "their survival" is in danger because of "us". Whitey Bulgur's article fits perfectly into this concept when they felt they were getting "replaced". I still see forms of these reactionary education movements that are again just watered down racism like the whole panic of Critical Race Theory.

Post your response here.

I think your point about watered down racism in response to current education programs is really prominent. For instance, I have talked to students from the suburbs whose schools are involved with the METCO program (which currently buses inner city kids to the suburbs). They were all white kids who disliked the fact that students of color were there and looked down on them. What is scarier is that they were so upfront about their dislike towards them

hotchocolate
Boston, Massachusetts , US
Posts: 13

should've been more prepared/trained

I believe the goal of desegregation was worthy and justified the busing acts because although they never really addressed the racism that continued to exist and lack of opportunities predominantly black schools faced as opposed the white schools, it’s important in a developing youth’s life to interact with people of different backgrounds and experiences. There wasn’t really any other way without conflict people would choose to mix in school, even today the areas are still visibly separated. It’s understandable that there was fear on both sides: the Roxbury families feared for their children’s vulnerability and safety while the Southie families feared safety as well but from the way they perceived Roxbury as crime ridden and dangerous. I would say that the violence inflicted on children and the many protests against the desegregation of schools might’ve been the only way to reach the still limited diversity of today’s schools and it brought up an important conversation. If children stayed in their neighborhood schools, it might’ve been safer and more convenient but mixing these students seems to have opened eyes to the possibility of more acceptance and less racism because they were interacting and learning from each other, given the ability to see how their classmates of a different color aren’t that different and inspire ideas that distanced themselves from those of their parents, who’s biases were shaped in school from a young age.


In one article, a white student Dunner was annoyed by media attention and wasn’t affected by new black classmates which makes me think parents had strong opinions on desegregation of schools but did they even ask their kids what they thought/felt and let them decide? I think this decision was quite abrupt and there were only a few black teachers so the safety of the students undergoing these significant changes in their daily routine should’ve been supported, more by having teachers understand how to serve their students and less by only having security escort them inside. I wish there could’ve been a greater level of understanding from both sides, particularly the protestors, because it was hard for everyone and they would have seen each other more equally as humans and been able to civilly voice their thoughts. The violence is horrifying to hear about and it’s angering to hear that people were injured for doing their jobs as well as young kids. I think the article said the mayor anticipated this violence but nothing was done beforehand to prevent it and try to ease the families into it.


A study said that half of white people believed equality had been won but it’s just what it looks like on the outside like if there were now integrated schools, racism didn’t just go away. The order further divided the two communities because threats and stabbings were occurring. The fight for desegregation was so that children could get a better education and have all the resources available but it was lost because of racism and the word itself was said to not mean the balancing of racial divides. I can’t imagine going to school during this period because it might be confusing and overwhelming to as a student and as a person of color, I’d feel alone and vulnerable, and definitely not into the idea of staying in school because of the violence I’d witness or even face. I’m fortunate to have grown up in pretty diverse communities and some lasting effects I see are unprepared teachers who act/say inappropriate things, BPS schools predominantly of students of color that don’t offer opportunities like BPS students get, students of color having to work harder to get the same things, other racist interactions I’ve witnessed or experienced, but I also see people of all backgrounds being friendly and interacting.

hotchocolate
Boston, Massachusetts , US
Posts: 13

Originally posted by saucymango on October 24, 2021 11:07

Originally posted by no name on October 24, 2021 10:55

I do believe the ends justify the means and was a worthy goal because education is a keystone of development and the future Like the women said in the documentary, it wasn't going to happen overnight. Negotiating between the two parties in the beginning of the 20th century when it came to racial equality resulted in the "separate but equal" concept. Education is such an important aspect of life that if we segregate that we do for the rest of our life. The conflict in 1974 was just tension that we saw building that exploding into the open, it was inevitably going to occur when however was the question. Garrity needed to hear the voices of the people getting affected by this, they were just stirring the pot for their own political gain not caring who is affected. I don't think any minority would be able to tolerate because they were not tolerated in Southie , they began forming "predatory identity", which is when they feel "their survival" is in danger because of "us". Whitey Bulgur's article fits perfectly into this concept when they felt they were getting "replaced". I still see forms of these reactionary education movements that are again just watered down racism like the whole panic of Critical Race Theory.

Post your response here.

I think your point about watered down racism in response to current education programs is really prominent. For instance, I have talked to students from the suburbs whose schools are involved with the METCO program (which currently buses inner city kids to the suburbs). They were all white kids who disliked the fact that students of color were there and looked down on them. What is scarier is that they were so upfront about their dislike towards them

Definitely an interesting point. These kids learn this from an early age and it seems to be pretty much based on what their parents or adult figures believe. Schools in the suburbs are in white neighborhoods and have less behavioral issues and challenging curriculum, so clearly since inner city kids travel far and work to get into METCO, education disparities still haven't been tackled.

pseudonym
boston, Ma, US
Posts: 13

Boston, race, redlining, and desegregation: What do we make of its legacy?

I think that bussing could have been avoided if the schools provided by the city (public) were good in all the towns. This meant that equal money, time and resources would have been put into schools in Roxbury as it was in Southie. Desegregation was a worthy goal because society needed to change. It was never justifiable the desegregations in our schools, however knowing it happened anyway, change was needed. I think change needed to happen regardless of the schools but the backlash of southie residents who did not favor busing could have been avoided if Roxbury schools were good. Slowly rendering these schools with the resources it needed could allow bussing to be implemented step by step. This could have saved many hate crimes that we witnessed in the documentary for instance. I can sincerely say I can't imagine going to school in the 1970s because as a white person, I’ve never even been faced with any injustices. The only thing that I can say is that I am a woman living in a society that still needs to guarantee equality. However this doesn't compare to the racism we see on this specific occasion. Anything that would pertain to white males especially, would have been tolerated while any request to help the african american students would not even be considered. Although we are fortunate enough to go to schools which have diversity in them, as a student of boston public schools, I notice that low income parts of towns tend to have schools who aren't valued as much as Boston Latin School. These problems are a reflection of the ones in 1954-1975. I believe that Public schools need to be all at the same level and receive the same amount of attention equally.
pseudonym
boston, Ma, US
Posts: 13

Originally posted by hotchocolate on October 24, 2021 13:08

I believe the goal of desegregation was worthy and justified the busing acts because although they never really addressed the racism that continued to exist and lack of opportunities predominantly black schools faced as opposed the white schools, it’s important in a developing youth’s life to interact with people of different backgrounds and experiences. There wasn’t really any other way without conflict people would choose to mix in school, even today the areas are still visibly separated. It’s understandable that there was fear on both sides: the Roxbury families feared for their children’s vulnerability and safety while the Southie families feared safety as well but from the way they perceived Roxbury as crime ridden and dangerous. I would say that the violence inflicted on children and the many protests against the desegregation of schools might’ve been the only way to reach the still limited diversity of today’s schools and it brought up an important conversation. If children stayed in their neighborhood schools, it might’ve been safer and more convenient but mixing these students seems to have opened eyes to the possibility of more acceptance and less racism because they were interacting and learning from each other, given the ability to see how their classmates of a different color aren’t that different and inspire ideas that distanced themselves from those of their parents, who’s biases were shaped in school from a young age.


In one article, a white student Dunner was annoyed by media attention and wasn’t affected by new black classmates which makes me think parents had strong opinions on desegregation of schools but did they even ask their kids what they thought/felt and let them decide? I think this decision was quite abrupt and there were only a few black teachers so the safety of the students undergoing these significant changes in their daily routine should’ve been supported, more by having teachers understand how to serve their students and less by only having security escort them inside. I wish there could’ve been a greater level of understanding from both sides, particularly the protestors, because it was hard for everyone and they would have seen each other more equally as humans and been able to civilly voice their thoughts. The violence is horrifying to hear about and it’s angering to hear that people were injured for doing their jobs as well as young kids. I think the article said the mayor anticipated this violence but nothing was done beforehand to prevent it and try to ease the families into it.


A study said that half of white people believed equality had been won but it’s just what it looks like on the outside like if there were now integrated schools, racism didn’t just go away. The order further divided the two communities because threats and stabbings were occurring. The fight for desegregation was so that children could get a better education and have all the resources available but it was lost because of racism and the word itself was said to not mean the balancing of racial divides. I can’t imagine going to school during this period because it might be confusing and overwhelming to as a student and as a person of color, I’d feel alone and vulnerable, and definitely not into the idea of staying in school because of the violence I’d witness or even face. I’m fortunate to have grown up in pretty diverse communities and some lasting effects I see are unprepared teachers who act/say inappropriate things, BPS schools predominantly of students of color that don’t offer opportunities like BPS students get, students of color having to work harder to get the same things, other racist interactions I’ve witnessed or experienced, but I also see people of all backgrounds being friendly and interacting.

I really like how you mention how many White people don't see the issues in our society regarding racism because it doesn't pertain to them. I can understand that understanding the reality of one you have never even seen can be difficult. But what makes a good citizen is one who can acknowledge the privilege they have and work for all people who don't have that. This could come with fighting for justice or using the privilege (white for example) to challenge the system.

pinkskittles
boston , Massachusetts, US
Posts: 10

Boston, race, redlining, and desegregation: What do we make of its legacy?

I genuinely could not imagine going to school in the environment of 1974-1975. As we saw in the video in class and after reading some of the articles, I realize how inhumane people were treated more specifically how African Americans were treated by white people during this time. Especially with the whole bussing situation, when white kids were to go the more predominantly black neighborhoods they were greeted and welcomed, as any person should. But when the African American kids were to go to the more white neighborhoods. on busses, the way they got treated was absolutely disgusting. I think the only thing that would be tolerable was the knowing that there change happening, and society was desegregating. However, that easier said then done because it did take a while for it to actually happen and even still to this day African American people are discriminated against. I don't really think I could tolerate much of it, I think seeing the kids get treated the way they got treated would be intolerable to look at, for any decent human being. I think yes desegregation was a worthy goal and it did need to happen in society, whether some people liked it or not.

pinkskittles
boston , Massachusetts, US
Posts: 10

Originally posted by no name on October 24, 2021 10:55

I do believe the ends justify the means and was a worthy goal because education is a keystone of development and the future Like the women said in the documentary, it wasn't going to happen overnight. Negotiating between the two parties in the beginning of the 20th century when it came to racial equality resulted in the "separate but equal" concept. Education is such an important aspect of life that if we segregate that we do for the rest of our life. The conflict in 1974 was just tension that we saw building that exploding into the open, it was inevitably going to occur when however was the question. Garrity needed to hear the voices of the people getting affected by this, they were just stirring the pot for their own political gain not caring who is affected. I don't think any minority would be able to tolerate because they were not tolerated in Southie , they began forming "predatory identity", which is when they feel "their survival" is in danger because of "us". Whitey Bulgur's article fits perfectly into this concept when they felt they were getting "replaced". I still see forms of these reactionary education movements that are again just watered down racism like the whole panic of Critical Race Theory.

I fully agree with your points on how education was a big part in the development. It was absoulutely a worthy goal and I don't see how anyone could think or say otherwise.

redemmed2021
Boston, Massachusetts, US
Posts: 13
  • Did the ends (desegregating the Boston public schools) justify the means (busing)?

I do believe that the ends justified the means. The essential goal of busing was to help better the education of black students, which would be accomplished by sending them to predominantly white schools. The predominately white schools received mush more money and help from the state than black schools had. This desegregation of the schools by means of busing did bring many problems, but change never comes without challenges. The government could of been more helpful when these challenges arose and handle many of the horrible events that occurred during the incipience of busing in better ways.

  • Was desegregation a worthy goal or not?

Desegregation was a worthy goal because it allows for more experiences and connections. To add on we can't move on from things like slavery without removing the barrier that was created between black and white communities and individuals.

  • Did change need to happen in the Boston Public Schools or were there other solutions to the remedy prescribed by Judge W. Arthur Garrity?

Yes, change did need to happen in BPS. As I mentioned above the change could of been brought in a much more efficient way but the desegregation of schools was an important thing that needed to happen. One way in which the BPS could of brought change is by funding the underfunded schools that many children of the black community attended. Providing funding for these schools might of eliminated the problem for busing. A negative outcome from this is the continued isolation of both black and white communities.

  • Can you imagine going to school in the environment of 1974-1975? What would have been tolerable? What would have been intolerable?

When I was reading the essays in " Echoes of the Busing Crisis" many of the kids talked about how they went on many field trips and school parties. Some of these trips were going to the Franklin Park zoo, rollerskating, walking the sky walk at the Prudential and spending some time at camp Hale. These all sound fun so these would be tolerable for me if i was going to school back in that environment. What would be intolerable would be the idea of experiencing racism form classmates and teachers. From the reading the essays though it seemed the as time went on many of the kids were able to make friends with the opposite race, even though they were reluctant and nervous. This is reasonable though given the change they are about to experience in their lives. To add on the constant idea of having to be on the look out an hearing about the horrible things taking place at other schools in Boston.

  • What do you see as the most visible effects today of the desegregation era of 1974-1975?

One of the most visible effects is the desegregation of schools. Outside of this I don't really see any. When I used to take yellow buses to and from school most of the kids were black or Hispanic. This changed once we walked through the doors of my very diverse elementary school. In my 6th grade nearly all of my classmates were black and all of my teachers were white, besides my English teacher. Overall the change I don't think was that huge but the start of it was definitey important.

redemmed2021
Boston, Massachusetts, US
Posts: 13

Originally posted by pseudonym on October 24, 2021 16:17

I think that bussing could have been avoided if the schools provided by the city (public) were good in all the towns. This meant that equal money, time and resources would have been put into schools in Roxbury as it was in Southie. Desegregation was a worthy goal because society needed to change. It was never justifiable the desegregations in our schools, however knowing it happened anyway, change was needed. I think change needed to happen regardless of the schools but the backlash of southie residents who did not favor busing could have been avoided if Roxbury schools were good. Slowly rendering these schools with the resources it needed could allow bussing to be implemented step by step. This could have saved many hate crimes that we witnessed in the documentary for instance. I can sincerely say I can't imagine going to school in the 1970s because as a white person, I’ve never even been faced with any injustices. The only thing that I can say is that I am a woman living in a society that still needs to guarantee equality. However this doesn't compare to the racism we see on this specific occasion. Anything that would pertain to white males especially, would have been tolerated while any request to help the african american students would not even be considered. Although we are fortunate enough to go to schools which have diversity in them, as a student of boston public schools, I notice that low income parts of towns tend to have schools who aren't valued as much as Boston Latin School. These problems are a reflection of the ones in 1954-1975. I believe that Public schools need to be all at the same level and receive the same amount of attention equally.

I also agree that busing would have not been necessary if the schools which much of the black students went to receive the same amount of attention and help so that they can have a better and equal education. The desegregation of schools wouldn't occur but I do think the desegregation of schools is something that is important and would of eventually still have happened.

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