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freemanjud
Boston, US
Posts: 250


Reading:

  1. Kenneth and Mamie Clark, "Racial Identification and Preference in Negro Children," 1950 You can also read this here: https://i2.cdn.turner.com/cnn/2010/images/05/13/doll.study.1947.pdf
  2. Paul Bloom, “The Moral Life of Babies,” New York Times, May 5, 2010. You can also read this here: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/09/magazine/09babies-t.html
  3. James H. Burnett III, “Racism Learned: New Research Suggests Prejudices May Form at a Much Earlier Age, but It Also Offers Hope that Biases Can be Unlearned,” Boston Globe, June 10, 2012. You can also read this here:

https://www.bostonglobe.com/business/2012/06/09/harvard-researcher-says-children-learn-racism-quickly/gWuN1ZG3M40WihER2kAfdK/story.html


Wait a minute: wasn’t it just recently that we were talking about the problem of the definitions of race and ethnicity and the arbitrary nature of these categories? Holy moley, how did we get here?


As we saw in class on Tuesday, with the children in Anderson Cooper’s 2010 piece on skin color preferences: when asked to judge what skin color young children preferred, the general sense was that the children preferred lighter skin to darker skin. The question of whether adults preferred a particular skin color again, according to the children interviewed, seemed to be that, “Yes, they do. They prefer the lighter skin-colored people.”


Now granted, Cooper’s study was not scientific and therefore could easily be questioned, but it is a quasi-recreation of an study done by Kenneth and Mamie Clark in 1940-1941, a study that was at the core of the arguments made in favor of the plaintiff in the landmark Brown v Board of Education case that led to desegregation of the nation’s public schools after the Supreme Court ruled in 1954. A summary of that study by the Clarks in the link as the reading above. It’s essential that you read it!


So what explains why the children feel the way they do? Does Paul Bloom’s article offer any explanation? Is Mahzarin Banaji’s research helpful in this context? In other words, are there factors that affect the growth and views of children? Offer your thoughts on this and support them with specific, clear evidence. In other words, take a thoughtful post taking a position on these questions, reflecting what you learned from the three readings and what you saw in the Anderson Cooper video.


Be sure to respond to the comments of at least two people who precede you (or follow you) in this discussion.


BTW, in case you were not in class on Tuesday, the URLs for the various clips that we watched in class, as well as several related ones, are:

part 1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7cWgV5sigbQ (5:27)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EQACkg5i4AY (5:18)

part 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Xh1dkE7yn8 (2:00)

part 3: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ll9O9Inohnc (1:15)


Kids on Race: The Hidden Picture, 2012:

Part 1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GPVNJgfDwpw (9:29)

Part 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9OKgUdQF-Fg (6:25)


Lion03
Boston, MA, US
Posts: 11

How babies precieve race

As we saw in the study that was done, children of various ages associated lighter skin tones with positive attributes and darker skin tones with negative ones. We can see effects of time periods with slavery, Jim Crow laws, and segregation, trickle down from generation to generation. These type of racist ideologies are able to passed down. Paul Blooms article tells us that it is the parents job to humanize the babies. He talks about the psychology of babies and how their minds process the environment around them. It doesn't quite explain how babies view race itself but it does explain how babies have the sense of “good” and “bad” things. They have a sense of judgement base off of the reactions of others. This could pertain to race because if small children see others reacting poorly to people of a darker skin color, than they will grow up perceiving these people as “bad“. Mahzarin Banajis research has the central idea that children are able to grasp the concept of racism and they learn it. I think that the main factor in the growth and views, are their parents. As a child coming into the world, they don't know anything and are constantly adapting. The parents as the most influential part in their life since they are the ones expected to humanize them. As saidin the Racism Learned article ,’’When responsible adults in their lives consciously place their children in a position to see different groups interacting as equals’’, this proves that the responsible adult, or parent figure, needs to actively work on having children unlearn the racial bias in society. Another factor that I think is possible to affect children's views of race is different forms of media. As a child watching Disney Channel, it was clear to me that all the main characters were white. Similar to picture books where the characters were also white. If a child sees that the hero of almost all children's stories are white, than they will associate white with good qualities. We saw this in the video on Tuesday when children pointed to the “good” and “bad” children. It is a matter of representation and how it can effect racial bias’ with children that don't quite understand these complicated societal issues.
no name
Boston, Massachusetts, US
Posts: 7

What’s Up with Racial Preference among Children?

This connects to the Winona Guo and Priya Vulchs statement of racism is a cancer infecting all aspects of life. Sophia brought up Malcolm X lecture of how society has always identified darker as bad and evil and light as white and pure. How children's shows and books are shown influences them too, more recently than in the 1960s which is why there is the culture war of "forced diversity". White is all that is shown in dolls as the protagonists of your favorite shows or movies, causing you to feel alienated, which is what some of the kids in the AC360 video were definitely feeling. Children mirror everything they think is good even when they become older they are still influenced by parents(I have noticed quite a few similarities of how my parents and I act body language etc). They begin repeating parents opinion as they are the superiors or dogmatic so they cannot be wrong. What is super interesting in Blooms study is that it completely debunk the myth of babies being dumb and ignorant. This solves many questions but raises even more, at what stage then is this taught? is it different depending on brain development or environment? The cycle can be broken if we begin educating adults correctly in these realms while also in school. The funny bit is there is reactionary stances that have already begun, with the "CRT/critical race theory indoctrination" like Texas okaying the removal of the policy that the KKK must be taught to be morally wrong.
9oclock
Boston, MA, US
Posts: 13

The age old saying - children’s are sponges!

As Paul Bloom describes, children pick up on behavioral patterns and learn to expect them. This means that children’s morals are formed by the morals held in their surroundings. The differences in result in the Doll Experiment between kids in the North and the South support this. There was less of a white preference in the Northern kids, though the white preference was still strong. This can be explained by the integrated schooling and dominant progressive ideological culture in the North - in comparison to the segregated schooling and dominant conservative ideological culture in the south. Children will pick up on biased habits of treating/ referring t individuals of a race- whether it be the behavior of people around them or a negative portrayal of a race on public media. For babies’ ability to equate social dynamics on television to social dynamics in real life were broadcasted in an experiment in Paul Bloom’s article.


9oclock
Boston, MA, US
Posts: 13

Originally posted by Lion03 on October 13, 2021 12:02

As we saw in the study that was done, children of various ages associated lighter skin tones with positive attributes and darker skin tones with negative ones. We can see effects of time periods with slavery, Jim Crow laws, and segregation, trickle down from generation to generation. These type of racist ideologies are able to passed down. Paul Blooms article tells us that it is the parents job to humanize the babies. He talks about the psychology of babies and how their minds process the environment around them. It doesn't quite explain how babies view race itself but it does explain how babies have the sense of “good” and “bad” things. They have a sense of judgement base off of the reactions of others. This could pertain to race because if small children see others reacting poorly to people of a darker skin color, than they will grow up perceiving these people as “bad“. Mahzarin Banajis research has the central idea that children are able to grasp the concept of racism and they learn it. I think that the main factor in the growth and views, are their parents. As a child coming into the world, they don't know anything and are constantly adapting. The parents as the most influential part in their life since they are the ones expected to humanize them. As saidin the Racism Learned article ,’’When responsible adults in their lives consciously place their children in a position to see different groups interacting as equals’’, this proves that the responsible adult, or parent figure, needs to actively work on having children unlearn the racial bias in society. Another factor that I think is possible to affect children's views of race is different forms of media. As a child watching Disney Channel, it was clear to me that all the main characters were white. Similar to picture books where the characters were also white. If a child sees that the hero of almost all children's stories are white, than they will associate white with good qualities. We saw this in the video on Tuesday when children pointed to the “good” and “bad” children. It is a matter of representation and how it can effect racial bias’ with children that don't quite understand these complicated societal issues.

Post your response here.


I find your point to address the historical context of racist sentiments today important.
I find your statement “ their parents are the most influential part in their life..” too general to be true. The Doll Experiment showed that as some of the children got old enough to be surrounded in social climates other than their house, their preferences became less white- biased. Of course the individuals raising a child have a strong potential to form the child’s biases, but the community the child is raised and/or the individuals the child grows to respect must be mentioned.

9oclock
Boston, MA, US
Posts: 13

Originally posted by no name on October 13, 2021 16:20

This connects to the Winona Guo and Priya Vulchs statement of racism is a cancer infecting all aspects of life. Sophia brought up Malcolm X lecture of how society has always identified darker as bad and evil and light as white and pure. How children's shows and books are shown influences them too, more recently than in the 1960s which is why there is the culture war of "forced diversity". White is all that is shown in dolls as the protagonists of your favorite shows or movies, causing you to feel alienated, which is what some of the kids in the AC360 video were definitely feeling. Children mirror everything they think is good even when they become older they are still influenced by parents(I have noticed quite a few similarities of how my parents and I act body language etc). They begin repeating parents opinion as they are the superiors or dogmatic so they cannot be wrong. What is super interesting in Blooms study is that it completely debunk the myth of babies being dumb and ignorant. This solves many questions but raises even more, at what stage then is this taught? is it different depending on brain development or environment? The cycle can be broken if we begin educating adults correctly in these realms while also in school. The funny bit is there is reactionary stances that have already begun, with the "CRT/critical race theory indoctrination" like Texas okaying the removal of the policy that the KKK must be taught to be morally wrong.

Post your response here.

I am confused at what your stance is.
Bringing up the depiction of race in media and toys is a great point.

hotchocolate
Boston, Massachusetts , US
Posts: 13

children are really good indicators of where society is at

Referring to the Anderson Cooper video, it was especially interesting to me to see that between those ages of children so young, their views on race didn’t really change. I was thinking about what it would be like if the study was done on adults somehow and then I realized that the children in the study didn’t hesitate to say “that child is dumb because they’re black” because saying it out loud hasn’t been registered as very taboo. What I’m trying to say is that if an adult was asked those series of questions, their responses might align with those of the children (a specific example being the white child chosen for who adults prefer) but as we mature, we understand what’s socially acceptable to say and keep to ourselves so we might not vocalize our internalized racism. Unfortunately even as a person of color, I have been shaped by racism, homophobia, misogyny, and while I vocalize and discuss how strongly I oppose all of those things, sometimes I find it hard to accept that I’m part of the queer community because compulsory heterosexuality. This connects to my summer reading book about interviewing an assassin during apartheid South Africa because should the individual who was notorious for killing hundreds of innocent people be blamed or was it because of the oppressive system at the time (which might warrant an “excuse” or empathy)? It has to do with representation in younger kids, what we as a society choose to expose our children to. The video showed a toy section and like Barbies for example, they were originally all white, and then black Barbies were made honestly to appeal to a wider market and even possibly combat hatred of the lack of diversity in the dolls from the public. At any rate, it's amazing at the range of toys available in stores that serve to uplift everyone but also the amount of damaging stuff that's influencing today's youth (like the body shape of Barbies). To make a personal connection, I work with children in an art nonprofit and over the summer, we took them to the Gardner museum. The old wing is home to mostly white European artists and those depicted in the work, while the students who visit the museum include people of color and of every background. Part of my job at the museum was replacing images of white people and artists with Latinx, indigenous, and Asian/asian american artworks for teachers to use to base discussions on with students. Does this effort along with the rotating new wing exhibitions “compensate” for the lack of diversity in the old wing of the museum (since the way Isabella Gardner left the museum can’t be changed)? Exposure to all different cultures and races in daily life as you’re growing up and figuring out the world is a privilege because it teaches us that differences should be celebrated and kids are extremely affected by nature/environment as well as nurture. What they see and are told gets internalized by them whether consciously or not, and those opinions and beliefs stay with us and are often hard to change. Children are very thoughtful and perceptive and intelligent, noticing everything around them and reflecting what they take in. But it’s true at least for me that as I grow, I acknowledge that most of my friends and family are white and I want to find more ways to connect to my heritage/culture. My parents have always encouraged me to explore my culture and get involved and I think that if they hadn’t had such a big influence on what I chose to put my energy towards that shaped my values, perhaps I wouldn’t be as free and liberal thinking. Also, I remember bad experiences I’ve had with people like if I meet someone named Bob who’s rude, I dislike that name and associate negativity with it. As children are developing how they think and use this information, they might associate negative experiences with certain groups of people, which is hard to break because adults don’t fully speak the same language as children. I feel guilty for knowingly bullying kids as a child as a result of being bullied severely, and as I mature, I need to forgive myself because kids don’t always use words to express their challenges and feelings and often use actions instead as a tool to explore how they relate to others. Then they see how people respond to their actions and words and learn from those experiences. Going back to representation in terms of race, we often aren’t told of “successful” people of color who helped form the world we live in now, partly because they weren’t given those opportunities and that work of white people has always been valued more. Children from a young age in this day and age do have access to social media and everything they see or hear from billboards, advertisements, stories, etc., they learn to question or just internalize without knowing it. In terms of art, it can be a powerful tool to show youth that they can be successful, for example by showing them artists of color like Kehinde Wiley, which opens their eyes to the endless possibilities people of all backgrounds can have. Discussion is essential, no matter how uncomfortable it is, to helping children understand the world and everything that’s good and bad. The more knowledge one has about something they are passionate about changing and bettering, like the stigma surrounding menstruation, the more it inspires them to use their voice and harness their power. Going off of Paul Bloom’s research, babies and even adults mimic others and use that response as information. Children try on different personas and go through “phases” one could say because they’re curious about how others will respond, and that teaches them right from wrong. Young people honestly are the most honest and don’t get enough credit for their intelligence just because society has many things it views black and white and there aren’t many different acceptable ways for interpretation. Yes, race is made up and fiction but it’s real because everyone believes in it and lives it. Relating to Sapiens by Yuval Harari, many things like the government and corporations don’t tangibly exist and essentially they only do because we believe in them. Like if someone got fired from Google, the company wouldn’t shut down or suffer at all, and Google would still exist. Anyway, bias is a part of our lives from the minute we’re born and we’re all faced with making decisions based on our experiences and thoughts. From our favorite stuffed animal to what school we go to.
hotchocolate
Boston, Massachusetts , US
Posts: 13

Originally posted by Lion03 on October 13, 2021 12:02

As we saw in the study that was done, children of various ages associated lighter skin tones with positive attributes and darker skin tones with negative ones. We can see effects of time periods with slavery, Jim Crow laws, and segregation, trickle down from generation to generation. These type of racist ideologies are able to passed down. Paul Blooms article tells us that it is the parents job to humanize the babies. He talks about the psychology of babies and how their minds process the environment around them. It doesn't quite explain how babies view race itself but it does explain how babies have the sense of “good” and “bad” things. They have a sense of judgement base off of the reactions of others. This could pertain to race because if small children see others reacting poorly to people of a darker skin color, than they will grow up perceiving these people as “bad“. Mahzarin Banajis research has the central idea that children are able to grasp the concept of racism and they learn it. I think that the main factor in the growth and views, are their parents. As a child coming into the world, they don't know anything and are constantly adapting. The parents as the most influential part in their life since they are the ones expected to humanize them. As saidin the Racism Learned article ,’’When responsible adults in their lives consciously place their children in a position to see different groups interacting as equals’’, this proves that the responsible adult, or parent figure, needs to actively work on having children unlearn the racial bias in society. Another factor that I think is possible to affect children's views of race is different forms of media. As a child watching Disney Channel, it was clear to me that all the main characters were white. Similar to picture books where the characters were also white. If a child sees that the hero of almost all children's stories are white, than they will associate white with good qualities. We saw this in the video on Tuesday when children pointed to the “good” and “bad” children. It is a matter of representation and how it can effect racial bias’ with children that don't quite understand these complicated societal issues.

I definitely agree that representation or lack thereof and what parents expose their children to are major factors in children developing their own bias and set of beliefs. It's interesting that we are so dependent on our parents and role models in general for their reactions and own beliefs but as we get older, we take what we know and grow from that as more independent young people open to changing our long held beliefs. What we're fed constantly through media often celebrates white people above people of color like how I love Pinterest for inspiration and only see white people. Sometimes I look for hairstyles and have to write "asian" after it so I can see someone "like me" represented.

hotchocolate
Boston, Massachusetts , US
Posts: 13

Originally posted by no name on October 13, 2021 16:20

This connects to the Winona Guo and Priya Vulchs statement of racism is a cancer infecting all aspects of life. Sophia brought up Malcolm X lecture of how society has always identified darker as bad and evil and light as white and pure. How children's shows and books are shown influences them too, more recently than in the 1960s which is why there is the culture war of "forced diversity". White is all that is shown in dolls as the protagonists of your favorite shows or movies, causing you to feel alienated, which is what some of the kids in the AC360 video were definitely feeling. Children mirror everything they think is good even when they become older they are still influenced by parents(I have noticed quite a few similarities of how my parents and I act body language etc). They begin repeating parents opinion as they are the superiors or dogmatic so they cannot be wrong. What is super interesting in Blooms study is that it completely debunk the myth of babies being dumb and ignorant. This solves many questions but raises even more, at what stage then is this taught? is it different depending on brain development or environment? The cycle can be broken if we begin educating adults correctly in these realms while also in school. The funny bit is there is reactionary stances that have already begun, with the "CRT/critical race theory indoctrination" like Texas okaying the removal of the policy that the KKK must be taught to be morally wrong.

The importance of educating adults first so they can educate their children is so important and often overlooked. Education on our past mistakes and topics people get uncomfortable discussing is the only way to create a better future for everyone. I hope there will be more resources and important discussions held for teachers and adults who care about their students because I know that I am made up of everyone I interact with.

pseudonym
boston, Ma, US
Posts: 13

What’s Up with Racial Preference among Children?

The documentary shows us and explains how children tend to interpret race the way that they are taught. Since it's a child you don't have a strong opinion of yourself because you haven't experienced the world yet, your ideas are strongly influenced by your parents and the environment around you. Paul Bloom tells us about how babies seem more careless than they actually are. This sparks the idea of why they tend to notice colors for example and favor one over the other. Something that was very interesting to me was the study on how kids from the north and kids from the south tend to differ in their answers about race. This example supports the statement that northern schools and environments tend to be less segregated than the south. This is not to say that the north is perfect but it shows how people are more educated. Mahzarin Banajis’s research suggests that children know more about race more than we think. They understand the difference between a person who is lighter and a person who is darker. This makes me believe that it truly is the influence of who you are raised by that engraves the way you think. With this being said, it truly is important in my opinion on educating your children to have an open mind in order for them to have the freedom of changing their opinions later in life. Many children feel the pressure to always think the way they were taught but with experiences lived by you and not others, you learn much more.

pseudonym
boston, Ma, US
Posts: 13

Originally posted by Lion03 on October 13, 2021 12:02

As we saw in the study that was done, children of various ages associated lighter skin tones with positive attributes and darker skin tones with negative ones. We can see effects of time periods with slavery, Jim Crow laws, and segregation, trickle down from generation to generation. These type of racist ideologies are able to passed down. Paul Blooms article tells us that it is the parents job to humanize the babies. He talks about the psychology of babies and how their minds process the environment around them. It doesn't quite explain how babies view race itself but it does explain how babies have the sense of “good” and “bad” things. They have a sense of judgement base off of the reactions of others. This could pertain to race because if small children see others reacting poorly to people of a darker skin color, than they will grow up perceiving these people as “bad“. Mahzarin Banajis research has the central idea that children are able to grasp the concept of racism and they learn it. I think that the main factor in the growth and views, are their parents. As a child coming into the world, they don't know anything and are constantly adapting. The parents as the most influential part in their life since they are the ones expected to humanize them. As saidin the Racism Learned article ,’’When responsible adults in their lives consciously place their children in a position to see different groups interacting as equals’’, this proves that the responsible adult, or parent figure, needs to actively work on having children unlearn the racial bias in society. Another factor that I think is possible to affect children's views of race is different forms of media. As a child watching Disney Channel, it was clear to me that all the main characters were white. Similar to picture books where the characters were also white. If a child sees that the hero of almost all children's stories are white, than they will associate white with good qualities. We saw this in the video on Tuesday when children pointed to the “good” and “bad” children. It is a matter of representation and how it can effect racial bias’ with children that don't quite understand these complicated societal issues.

I find it very interesting how you mention Disney Channel a platform most of us have grown up with. Its influence on us has definitely stayed because I can personally relate back to many of the shows today and tell you my favorite episodes. With this being said I wonder if it had more diversity if that too could stick with people more?

redemmed2021
Boston, Massachusetts, US
Posts: 13

Children and Racial Prefrences

The way children feel about race involves many aspects. I don't really think there is one clear cut answer. Bloom's article states how when babies are born they have a simple sense of morals and a simple way of categorizing good vs bad. Bloom also makes it clear that children pick up on behavioral patterns and learn to expect them. Here is where I think the influence of the parents and surroundings play a big role. If a baby's parents were giving certain negative reactions to a specific race they would categorize people that look like that to be bad. These categorizations can begin to stay with them. As mentioned before another reason why there may be some racial preference is because of the environment. In the doll study we learn about the white doll is categorized by many of the colored and negro children as their prefered color, or the nice doll. In the study they also recorded the difference between the north and the south. The kids in the south who went to segregated schools most likely received some bad treatment given the time period. To add on they are only around people that look like them and because of this they categorize themselves and form a group. As the children are watching their surroundings they see how the white children are treated better than they are, and because they have some type of understanding of good and bad they conclude that the white/ lighter skinned children are good. Children know that people that are treated well are most likely nice people so that could be why they feel the way they do about race. The colored/Negro children want to people treated nicely and fairly so thy would prefer to be that race. To add on becasue of segregation and slavery the US estbalsihed the idea of race, and from the video we see that there is no genetic marker for race. From this the children start to focus on how they would be categorized and how other kids are categorized


pseudonym
boston, Ma, US
Posts: 13

Originally posted by hotchocolate on October 13, 2021 18:53

Originally posted by no name on October 13, 2021 16:20

This connects to the Winona Guo and Priya Vulchs statement of racism is a cancer infecting all aspects of life. Sophia brought up Malcolm X lecture of how society has always identified darker as bad and evil and light as white and pure. How children's shows and books are shown influences them too, more recently than in the 1960s which is why there is the culture war of "forced diversity". White is all that is shown in dolls as the protagonists of your favorite shows or movies, causing you to feel alienated, which is what some of the kids in the AC360 video were definitely feeling. Children mirror everything they think is good even when they become older they are still influenced by parents(I have noticed quite a few similarities of how my parents and I act body language etc). They begin repeating parents opinion as they are the superiors or dogmatic so they cannot be wrong. What is super interesting in Blooms study is that it completely debunk the myth of babies being dumb and ignorant. This solves many questions but raises even more, at what stage then is this taught? is it different depending on brain development or environment? The cycle can be broken if we begin educating adults correctly in these realms while also in school. The funny bit is there is reactionary stances that have already begun, with the "CRT/critical race theory indoctrination" like Texas okaying the removal of the policy that the KKK must be taught to be morally wrong.

The importance of educating adults first so they can educate their children is so important and often overlooked. Education on our past mistakes and topics people get uncomfortable discussing is the only way to create a better future for everyone. I hope there will be more resources and important discussions held for teachers and adults who care about their students because I know that I am made up of everyone I interact with.

The comment before is very important and relatable because since we have learned how much parents or guardians have an influence on us, it's important they are good role models. Unfortunately, too many people in our society have never learned to grow with the world and are left with a mindset of 50 years ago. I must imagine it is hard for them to think differently, but this mentality of not being willing to learn more is what is most hurting to our children.

redemmed2021
Boston, Massachusetts, US
Posts: 13

Originally posted by Lion03 on October 13, 2021 12:02

As a child watching Disney Channel, it was clear to me that all the main characters were white. Similar to picture books where the characters were also white. If a child sees that the hero of almost all children's stories are white, than they will associate white with good qualities. We saw this in the video on Tuesday when children pointed to the “good” and “bad” children. It is a matter of representation and how it can effect racial bias’ with children that don't quite understand these complicated societal issues.

I also grew up watching Disney channel and on many of the shows, not that I think back,most of the main characters were white. I never really payed attention to their that much though, just watched for fun and entertainment. Those were the good days, lol. One show that I really thought did a good job on the diversity of its kids on Disney channel though was Jessie. Of topic but Jessie is one of the best shows to ever on Disney Channel. I do think that Disney channel has tried to make their actors more diverse in the recent years.

redemmed2021
Boston, Massachusetts, US
Posts: 13

Originally posted by pseudonym on October 13, 2021 20:22

. With this being said, it truly is important in my opinion on educating your children to have an open mind in order for them to have the freedom of changing their opinions later in life. Many children feel the pressure to always think the way they were taught but with experiences lived by you and not others, you learn much more.

I definitely agree that you learn much more when you live through your own experiences. Sometimes I think parents forget that their child is their own person and at a certain age soemtimes you have to let the learn on their own, but its always important for the parent to be there for help.

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